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          您现在的位置:石雕|西洋人物雕塑|石雕花钵|欧式凉亭|汉白玉浮雕-曲阳增鑫石材雕刻厂 >> 企业动态 >> 浏览文章

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          雕刻工艺品的小常识

           

          日期:2019年09月10日 来源:本站原创 浏览:

           

          雕琢工艺品是以木、石、砖、竹、象牙、兽骨等资料雕琢的跟以粘土、油泥、糯米面等资料塑造而成的小型或装潢性手工艺品。是雕琢跟塑造工艺品的总称。
             沿革 雕塑在中国有着长久的汗青跟优良的艺术传统。最早呈现的是泥塑跟陶塑,旧石器时期晚期,呈现骨雕、石雕、木雕跟象牙雕琢。山东宁阳大汶口遗迹出土的新石器时期象牙筒,已应用镂雕技法,表现出纯熟的技能程度。四川巫山大溪遗迹出土了新石器时期的石雕人面饰件跟木雕。浙  江余姚河姆渡遗迹出土新石器时期的木雕“小鱼”是件圆雕作品,伎俩写实。商代,玉器跟骨雕、象牙雕琢开展很快,种类多为小型装潢性日用品,如梳子、匕、尺、针、笄、簪、觚等。下面雕琢精致的云雷、餮、夔凤等图案,有的还镶嵌玉石、绿松石;石雕的种类则大多是墓葬品或建造装潢。在湖南长沙、河南信阳、湖北江陵等地的战国时期遗迹,都出土了不少木俑,人物抽象外型简洁,重视描绘情态,衣纹则多以彩绘、彩漆表示,首创了中国雕塑工艺中将彩绘、彩漆与雕塑相联合的彩塑艺术。秦汉两代,陶俑大批呈现,题材普遍,有随从、歌舞、说唱、杂技以及猪、狗、马等,在艺术上突走情态跟静态的描绘,不但纯寻求比例跟构造的正确,是中国雕塑工艺史上的佳构。汉代的瓦当、画像砖多应用线刻、压地平雕的雕琢技法,对宋代砖雕的崛起发生很大的影响。两晋南北朝至唐代,石窟、寺院中的石雕跟彩塑佛像以及石雕、木雕的建造装潢也较昌盛。宋代官方雕塑开展很快,平江(今江苏姑苏)跟临安(今浙江杭州)成为彩塑重点产区。宋代彩塑最有名的种类是摩罗,又称磨喝乐,即小型泥偶(为一手持荷叶的儿童),是事先七月初七的祭奠品,后开展为传统彩塑“荷花孺子”的外型。元代彩塑在技能上接收了尼泊尔等国梵像雕塑的优点,有名的匠师有阿尼哥、刘元等。明代,竹刻、木雕在江苏、浙江、上海等地发达开展,此中竹刻以上海嘉定为有名。清代,北京跟广州的象牙雕琢、浙江青田石雕跟福州寿山石雕、广东潮州金漆木雕、浙江东阳木雕,以及嘉定竹刻等都有了很大开展。江苏姑苏雕琢匠师杜士元、寿山石雕匠师杨璇、嘉定竹刻匠师施天章等曾应诏在宫廷供职。
             品类 中国雕塑工艺品的种类良多。按质料分,雕琢类重要有象牙雕琢、砖雕、木雕、石雕、竹刻、果核雕琢、果壳雕琢、根雕、角雕、骨雕、刻瓷、煤精雕琢、贝壳雕琢等;塑造类重要有泥塑、彩塑、油泥塑、面塑、酥油塑、陶塑、瓷塑等。按用处分,重要有案头雕塑、日用雕塑、建造雕塑、宗教雕塑、墓葬雕塑、玩具雕塑等。案头雕塑是摆设于书架、桌案上供人们欣赏的小型雕塑工艺品。日用雕塑是小型装潢性的日用品,如石雕的台灯、印章,竹刻的茶叶盒等。建造雕塑重如果用于建造装潢的石雕、木雕。宗教雕塑是彩塑、酥油塑或木雕的佛像、佛龛、供桌等。墓葬雕塑为砖雕跟木俑、陶俑等。玩具雕塑为供儿童玩的面塑、陶塑、瓷塑、彩塑等工艺品。

          The historical sculpture has a long history and excellent artistic tradition in China. The earliest appeared were clay sculptures and pottery sculptures. In the late Paleolithic period, bone carvings, stone carvings, wood carvings and ivory carvings appeared. The Neolithic ivory tube unearthed at the Dawenkou site in Ningyang, Shandong Province, has used carving techniques to show a skilled skill level. The Daxi site in Wushan, Sichuan Province unearthed Neolithic stone carvings and wood carvings. The Neolithic woodcarving "Little Fish" unearthed at the Yuyaohemudu site in the Zhejiang River is a round carving work with realistic techniques. In the Shang Dynasty, jade and bone carvings and ivory carvings developed rapidly. The varieties were mostly small decorative daily necessities, such as combs, gongs, scales, needles, gongs, gongs, gongs, and gongs. The above carved fine clouds, plumes, Phoenix and other patterns, some also inlaid jade, turquoise; The varieties of stone carvings are mostly tombs or architectural decorations. In the Warring States period sites in Changsha, Henan Xinyang, Hubei Jiangling and other places, a lot of wooden figures were unearthed. The characters were simple and concise in shape, and they focused on depicting their looks. The clothing patterns were mostly painted and painted. It has created a color sculpture art that combines painting, paint and sculpture in Chinese sculpture technology. In the Qin and Han dynasties, Tao's Terracotta warriors appeared in large numbers, with a wide range of subjects, including attendants, singing and dancing, rap, acrobatics, and pigs, dogs, and horses. They featured artistic portrayals of looks and dynamics, and did not simply pursue the accuracy of proportions and structures. It is a fine work in the history of Chinese sculpture. The Wudang and portrait bricks of the Han Dynasty used the technique of carving and pressing the ground to carve, which had a great influence on the rise of brick carvings in the Song Dynasty. From the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Tang Dynasty, the stone carvings and colored statues in the grottoes and monasteries, as well as the architectural decorations of stone carvings and wood carvings, also flourished. The folk sculpture of the Song Dynasty developed rapidly, and Pingjiang(now Jiangsu Suzhou) and Lin 'an(now Zhejiang Hangzhou) became key producing areas for color sculpture. The most famous species of color plastic in the Song Dynasty was Moro, also known as grinding music, that is, a small clay doll(for a child holding a lotus leaf). It was a sacrificial object at the time of the seventh day of July and was later developed into a traditional color plastic "Hehuatongzi". Shape. In the Yuan Dynasty, the color sculpture absorbed the strengths of Nepalese and other national statues. The famous craftsmen included Anigo and Liu Yuan. In the Ming Dynasty, bamboo carvings and wood carvings flourished in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai. Among them, bamboo carvings were famous for Shanghai Jiading. In the Qing Dynasty, ivory carvings in Beijing and Guangzhou, Zhejiang Qingtian stone carvings, Fuzhou Shoushan stone carvings, Guangdong Chaozhou gold lacquer wood carvings, Zhejiang Dongyang wood carvings, and Jiading bamboo carvings have all developed greatly. Jiangsu Suzhou Carving Master Dushiyuan, Shoushan Carving Master Yangxuan, and Jiading Bamboo Carving Master Shi Tianzhang once served in the court.
          There are many varieties of Chinese sculpture crafts. According to the raw materials, the carvings mainly include ivory carvings, brick carvings, wood carvings, stone carvings, bamboo carvings, core carvings, shell carvings, root carvings, corner carvings, bone carvings, porcelain carvings, coal carvings, shell carvings, etc.; Molding categories mainly include clay sculpture, color sculpture, oil clay sculpture, surface sculpture, shortening sculpture, pottery sculpture, porcelain sculpture and so on. According to the purpose, there are mainly desk sculptures, daily sculptures, architectural sculptures, religious sculptures, tomb sculptures, and toy sculptures. Desk sculpture is a small sculpture craft that is displayed on bookshelves and table cases for people to watch. Daily sculpture is a small decorative daily necessities, such as stone lamps, seals, bamboo tea boxes and so on. Architectural sculptures are mainly used for stone carvings and wood carvings for architectural decoration. Religious sculptures are statues of Buddha, Buddhist shrines, tables, etc.. The tomb sculptures are brick carvings and wooden statues, pottery statues, etc.. Toy sculpture is for children to play surface sculpture, pottery sculpture, porcelain sculpture, color sculpture and other crafts. 

           

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